Friday Coffee Break, Easter/April Fools edition

black coffee with chocolate easter eggs

Every Friday at Nothing in Biology Makes Sense! our contributors pass around links to new scientific results, or science-y news, or videos of adorable wildlife, that they’re most likely to bring up while waiting in line for a latte.

To get this weeks coffee break started, Amy brings us a post about the Paleo diet.  A new book by Marlene Zuk aims to show that the Paleo diet is a misinterpretation of evolution.

Jeremy takes the time this week to wonder about the effect on sea level if all the ships in the ocean were removed.  Alternatively, XKCD also wondered what would happen if you removed all the sponges.

Sarah stumbled upon this gem of a PDF book which will hopefully prove useful as she transitions from student to post doc.  She also brings up the potentially scary idea that you may not own your own DNA.  At least if the current patent situation remains upheld.  What happens if a company can own a 15-base pair fragment of DNA?

CJ continues the discussion on DNA with an article on the recent sequencing of the HeLa genome and the continued controversy regarding the ownership and publication of an individuals genome.  We continue to venture on into a strange new world with these issues.

Friday Coffee Break, Official Springtime Edition

springcoffee

Every Friday at Nothing in Biology Makes Sense! our contributors pass around links to new scientific results, or science-y news, or videos of adorable wildlife, that they’re most likely to bring up while waiting in line for a latte.

With the official start of Spring this week, at least depending on where you are.  For me, I’m currently sitting in Ithaca, NY where the high for the day is still only squeaking into the above freezing range which only makes me miss Richmond, VA right now all the more.  So without further adieu, which is apparently my new catch phrase, your links for the week.

To start things off on a light and happy note.  Sarah has some wonderful news that she passed her dissertation defense!!  She is so excited, as she should be, that her link this week is a ton of dancing GIFs.  Of note, she things either Carlton or Ace Ventura match her mood best.  Congrats Sarah!

This week CJ wonders about the possibility of a gender gap in pain perception as discussed in the NYTimes article.  She also thought this article gave a good break down of the process of becoming tenured and is indeed quite helpful (and makes me glad to be in the field that I am in).  And finally, an opinion piece on why De-extinction would not work.

From Jeremy, a piece from the blog Why Evolution is True on why science writing is tedious and often boring and what it takes to write good science.

From Amy, a depressing story on the passage of an amendment limiting the funding for NSF research regarding political science and the letter from Senator Tom Coburn justifying this measure.

Finally, I’d like to end things with a video.  I’m a big fan of TED talks and also of U2, so when I saw that Bono gave a TED talk about his passion of helping to fight to end poverty I thought it was worth a look.  I loved his analogy of how poverty could end in as short a time period as about 3 more Rolling Stones farewell tours.

Friday Coffee Break, Spring Break Style

Every Friday at Nothing in Biology Makes Sense! our contributors pass around links to new scientific results, or science-y news, or videos of adorable wildlife, that they’re most likely to bring up while waiting in line for a latte.

beachcoffee

To get things started, CJ found a depressing study (depending on your perspective anyway) about how your attitude can affect your health.  It’s not what you would expect a study to find, but there are additional conflicting studies so take it as you will.  However, she follows it up with another article about how the privatization of space flight has a long way to go before we can all reach for the stars.

From Amy, a new variant in the African-American Y-chromosome leads to the speculation on how long ago the common ancestor of modern humans existed and/or whether there was potential interbreeding between Neanderthals and modern humans.

To follow that up, Jeremy found an interesting video that shows a morphing of the faces of human ancestry.

From Sarah, a rather fun blog post on Scientific American on how one individual looked for answers to questions and found lots of information, but failed to answer the original question.

Finally, to return to the spring break theme, the CDC reports in its weekly grand rounds about multi-drug resistant gonorrhea.

Herd Immunity

vaccination

Over the past several years there has been a growing trend of parents that are terrified of vaccinating their kids citing reasons such as the debunked link to autism or that it just isn’t “natural.”   A healthcare blog run by several infectious disease doctors called Controversies in Hospital Infection Prevention has run frequent stories reporting on the declining vaccination rates as well as problems that ensue because of that, most recently about the whooping cough epidemic in Washington and wondering why Jenny McCarthy has so much influence on national views on vaccinations.

Continue reading

More than just a metaphor, Wright’s Adaptive Landscape provides inspiration

Review of The Adaptive Landscape in Evolutionary Biology edited by Erik Svensson and Ryan Calsbeek

adaptive_landscape_book_coverHave you ever wished you could go back in time to be present at a particular historical event? The 1932 International Congress of Genetics sounds perfect, right? There R. A. Fisher, J. B. S. Haldane, and Sewall Wright all presented papers of their recent research. If you’re a student of population genetics, you probably recognize these names as some of the founders of the field. At this meeting, Wright was asked to condense some of his more technical mathematical framework into a form that was more widely accessible to the audience of biologists. The result was his conceptualization of the Adaptive Landscape where an analogy is made between the fitness of an individual or population and the varied topographic landscape (pictured on the cover of the book). Wright used this metaphor to describe aspects evolutionary dynamics of populations.

The editors of a recent book, The Adaptive Landscape in Evolutionary Biology, gathered together contributions from evolutionary biologists, ecologists, and philosophers to demonstrate the impact that the Adaptive Landscape has had on the field of biology. This book embraces an 80 year old metaphor created by one of the founders of the modern synthesis to explore the breadth and depth of research generated in evolutionary biology. Unlike a recent book addressing aspects of the modern synthesis, Evolution: The Extendend Synthesis (Pigliucci and Müller, 2010) which called for a revolution, Svensson and Calsbeek have assembled authors that explore the innovations and contributions that build upon the fundamental ideas of population genetics and seek to grow the field. Early in this book, Pigliucci asks about the utility of the Adaptive Landscape metaphors, even titling his chapter with the question, “what are they good for?” I think the rest of the book provides a more than sufficient answer to his question.

Continue reading

The beef I have with The Paleo Diet

I’ve heard a lot about “The Paleo Diet” lately and every time a popular news source (say NPR or ABC or Fox News or New York Times) does a piece, I cringe a little bit. For those of you who have never heard of the Paleo Diet (from Wikipedia):

The paleolithic diet…is a modern nutritional plan based on the presumed ancient diet of wild plants and animals that various hominid species habitually consumed during the Paleolithic era—a period of about 2.5 million years duration that ended around 10,000 years ago with the development of agriculture.

So that’s the basic idea – people restricting their diet to things that we ate before modern agriculture. I don’t really have a problem with the diet, per se – removing highly processed foods and increasing your activity level is a good idea for almost anyone. But the rationale that always accompanies the diet – that’s where the cringe comes in.
The rationale goes like this (again from Wikipedia):

Paleolithic nutrition is based on the premise that modern humans are genetically adapted to the diet of their Paleolithic ancestors and that human genetics have scarcely changed since the dawn of agriculture, and therefore that an ideal diet for human health and well-being is one that resembles this ancestral diet.

I can break this rationale down into three assumptions/statements:
1. Evolution acts to optimize health.
2. Evolution adapted us to eat a specific diet.
3. Therefore, today, we should eat that diet to optimize our health.

As an evolutionary biologist, I think there are logical and scientific flaws to each of these statements.

Continue reading

Use it or lose it?

This post is a guest contribution by Dr. Levi Morran, NIH postdoctoral fellow at Indiana University. Levi studies the role that both coevolutionary relationships and mating systems play in shaping evolutionary trajectories. His research using experimental coevolution to test the Red Queen hypothesis recently appeared in Science and was featured on NPR and the BBC.

The 40 Year-Old Virgin movie poster

The 40 Year-Old Virgin

In the movie, The 40 Year Old Virgin, Steve Carell’s character (the title character) asks a sex education instructor, “Is it true that if you don’t use it, you lose it?” Given the context, I’ll allow you to put the pieces together and figure out just what he was referencing with the question. But, the phrase “use it or lose it” is quite catchy isn’t it?

Surprisingly, the phrase is thought to have some relevance in the field of evolutionary genetics, particularly regarding bacterial genomes. You see, widespread gene loss and genome reduction has been observed in some strains of bacteria, particularly those that specialize in certain environments (Cramer et al. 2011; Ernst et al. 2003; Smith et al. 2006). But, how and why do bacteria “lose it”, and do they lose it because they don’t use it?

Continue reading