When bad science goes mainstream: the treatment for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

An 8 million dollar study came out in the Lancet ~5 years ago claiming that if you have Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, otherwise known as myalgic encephalomyelitis, the best treatment is exercise and psychotherapy.

However, after years of demanding they release their data (which they did under a court order), it has now been revealed that the study was just plain bad science.

Read about the controversy, the study, and the retraction (hopefully) over at STAT.

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Another Bacteria that Causes Lyme Disease

Sure, finding new and interesting species and describing them is exciting.

But finding new bacteria that cause a well understood disease? Equally if not more exciting (my little parasitic loving heart is all aflutter!).

While it has long been thought that lyme disease is caused by one bacterium (Borrelia burgdorferi), researchers at Mayo Clinic found something floating around in blood samples of people suspected of having Lyme disease that is totally different.

It has been named Borrelia mayoniiand it is remarkably similar to it’s lyme disease causing brethren. But it also has some important differences.

Read all about it over at NPR

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The CRISPR revolution: Where are the profits?

Usually when an industry gets a booming industry it is largely due to profitability, which garners interest from investors.

But in biotech there is a section of the industry that is gaining investors and various firms chasing a similar goal. However, how that is happening is a mystery. The companies are burning through millions, hasn’t started clinical work on a drug candidate and it will be years, “if ever” before it has something commercializable.

What industry am I referring to? CRISPR-Cas9 technology. We’ve talked on the blog before about the possibilities CRISPR has to offer human health, but over at The Economist here’s a post about whether or not it can be all we dream it to be.

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Have you heard of the Zika virus?

The Zika virus has been a rare tropical disease since it’s discovery in 1947. It’s a mosquito born virus that has been spreading at an alarming rate. It was previously confined to a few dozen cases ever (all in Africa) to millions of cases across South America.

The initial symptoms are quite mild. But there is evidence that it may in fact cause microcephaly, or babies born with small heads/brains. Which isn’t mild at all.

Consider Brazil. Over the past year ~ 1.5 million people have been infected. The virus is thought to have arrived with World Cup travelers in 2014, and spread rapidly. But what’s alarming, rather than simple flu like symptoms the rate of microcephaly in Brazil has increased 10 fold. (From several hundred to several thousand).

And what’s more, it has just been found in Puerto Rico, suggesting it could soon appear in the US.

Read about it over at Vox.

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Jose Wesley, a Brazilian baby shown here on Dec. 23, 2015, was born with microcephaly. His mother was diagnosed with the Zika virus that researchers think may cause the birth defect. (AP Photo)

 

 

 

Gut Microbes are Important for Cancer Treatment

We have written so much about the rapidly expanding study of human microbiomes, I don’t think I need to point them all out (but if you want to check them out, try here, here, here, here and here).

Well, it turns out understanding the human microbiome is important for one more thing. Fighting cancer.

Two independent research teams have demonstrated that gut microbes can dramatically alter the immune system’s ability to deal with cancer (in mice). This includes 1) an individual’s natural immunity to cancer and 2) how well they respond to immunotherapy cancer drugs.

Read about it over at the Atlantic!

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Going Viral Against Cancer

We have heard of viruses causing cancer (HPV) or even cancers that act like viruses (devil facial tumor virus).

But now there is a virus that can fight cancer! An engineered herpevirus provokes an immune response against cancer. And after a long hard road, it has been approved to treat certain types of cancer by the FDA!

Read about it over at Nature!

Killer T cells (orange) are recruited to attack malignant cells (mauve) in the viral-based cancer therapy T-VEC.

Killer T cells (orange) are recruited to attack malignant cells (mauve) in the viral-based cancer therapy T-VEC.

Why the Elephant Didn’t get Cancer:

Follow my logic here: cancer occurs due to mutations in your cells. Elephants have A LOT more cells than people do. Therefore, elephants should have more cancer than people.

But they don’t. In fact, elephants have one of the lowest cancer mortality rates in the animal kingdom.

And scientist (at Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah School of Medicine, and Primary Children’s Hospital) have figured out the answer.

p53 heatshock proteins, known in some circles as the “Guardian of the Genome” (soon to be a Marvel movie I’m sure), are one of the key tumor suppressing genes. Humans have 2 genes for p53 proteins. Elephants have 38.

Read about it over at Slate!

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