Morphological convergence is one of the most striking patterns in evolution. Just among mammals there are spectacular and bizarre examples of distantly related species that share surprisingly similar adaptations. I bet you’ve heard of saber-toothed cats. But what about marsupial saber-toothed cats? Raccoons are surely familiar, but have you heard of raccoon dogs? Or the earless, eyeless oddity that is the golden mole, which somehow looks almost exactly like the equally earless and eyeless notoryctid marsupial mole? My favorite, though, might be the lesser hedgehog tenrec from Madagascar, which bears the same tiny coat of spiked armor as the common hedgehog but is more closely related to an elephant.
Until recently, most scientists studying evolutionary convergence have focused on the converged phenotype (external appearance), but with the arrival of ever-cheaper DNA sequencing technologies, scientists can efficiently study patterns of convergent genotypes across thousands of genes in species that appear to have converged at the phenotypic level.
Now, I know dancing sharks are the preferred marine species of the moment, but allow me to reignite your interest in some other denizens of the sea. Last month, a team of researchers published a study in Nature examining how genes in three marine mammal lineages might have converged independently on the same solution to the very hard physiological problem of living in the ocean after millions of years evolving on land (Foote et al. 2015). Their results are hardly conclusive but do illustrate a compelling new way to think about and study convergence now that genomes are getting so cheap to produce.