Friday coffee break


Every Friday at Nothing in Biology Makes Sense! our contributors pass around links to new scientific results, or science-y news, or videos of adorable wildlife, that they’re most likely to bring up while waiting in line for a latte.

From Sarah: Sequencing the genome of a 5,300-year-old body preserved in the ice of the Italian alps has revealed some interesting personal details.

The lactose intolerance makes sense, said Albert Zink, an anthropologist at the European Academy of Research in Bolzano, Italy, who was one of the study’s authors.

“In early times, there was no need to digest milk as an adult because there were no domesticated animals,” Dr. Zink said. “This genetic change took hundreds of years to occur.” [Link sic.]

And from Jeremy: An uprecedented study of genetic variation among the cells comprising individual tumors suggests that cancer genetics are going to get a lot more complicated before we understand them better.

Swanton found that even the primary tumour was surprisingly varied. He found 128 mutations among the various samples, but only a third of these were common to all of them. A quarter of the mutations were “private” ones – unique to a single sample.

The tumour had also split down two evolutionary lines. One area – part of R4 in the picture – had doubled its usual tally of chromosomes and seeded all the secondary tumours in the patient’s chest. The other branch had spawned the rest of the primary tumour. Even though this tumour looks like a single mass, whose cells all descended from a common ancestor, its different parts arehave all  evolved independently of one another.