Altogether, the members of the human body’s microbial ecosystem make up anywhere from two to six pounds of a 200-pound adult’s total body weight, according to estimates from the Human Microbiome Project, launched in 2007 by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The gastrointestinal tract is home to an overwhelming majority of these microbes, and, correspondingly, has attracted the most interest from the research community. But scientists are learning ever more about the microbiomes that inhabit parts of the body outside the gut, and they’re finding that these communities are likely just as important. Strong patterns, along with high diversity and variation across and within individuals, are recurring themes in microbiome research. While surveys of the body’s microbial communities continue, the field is also entering a second stage of inquiry: a quest to understand how the human microbiome promotes health or permits disease.
“Science isn’t a belief system. It’s proven knowledge. It either knows the answer to a problem, or admits it doesn’t and keeps looking for it.” – James Conca “Science is Not Democratic”, Forbes Magazine
An excellent article detailing why basic and applied scientific research should be encouraged (and funded, please please please fund us) in the US. It especially details a scary rising trend of allowing personal and political beliefs to override the importance of understanding basic science.
Here at Nothing in Biology, we are big fans of making stuff up (but, uh, not on the blog… or in our scientific publications… or on our tax returns… or, well, you get the point). So a few of us are thinking of entering some of our fantastical(ly bad) evolutionary theories to the Festival of Bad Ad Hoc Hypotheses. This festival is dedicated to “well-argued and thoroughly researched but completely incorrect evolutionary theory”. To get an idea of what it’s about, see the video below. If you’re in or near the Bay Area or Cambridge, Mass this October, think about checking it out!
Pangolins, or scaly anteaters, are delightfully weird. They have many of the adaptations we associate with anteaters—powerful front claws for breaking into anthills, a narrow snout for nosing into broken-open anthills, long tongues and sticky saliva for slurping up ants*—plus a sleek coat of overlapping scales. And, as you’ll see in this clip from the BBC’s The Life of Mammals, they’re (kind of) bipedal!
Pangolins are so different from other mammals, in fact, that all eight species are in a single genus Manis, which is the only genus in the family Manidae. As of this week the IUCN classifies every species in that family of weird adorable mammals as endangered, critically endangered, or vulnerable to extinction—because, apparently, they’re also pretty tasty.
As a review published in this week’s issue of Science describes in detail, we’re in the middle of the sixth mass extinction (that we know about) since life began on Earth, this one caused by the changes we’ve made to the planet. Pangolins are hardly going to be the only potential victims of that mass extinction—they’d be about 2% of the 322 terrestrial vertebrates estimated to have gone extinct since 1500.
(Sad hat-tip to Alex Wild.)
* Or termites, or other insects that hang out in burrows or rotting wood.
Apparently, that Science cover was pretty bad and plenty of people cared.
I got 75 responses in time to make the above figure (where the width of the blocks are proportional to the number of responses in each category)- 80% said the cover image was either very or kind of poorly chosen and 55% said they cared at least a little bit. The colored “lines” between the two answers depict how frequently two answers were chosen together and clicking the image will make it bigger. Thanks to everyone who gave me their 2 cents – such science. such wow.
Tens of thousands of animals fell to their deaths in a giant cave in Wyoming. They have been doing this for 100,000 years.
And now scientists are venturing into the cave to exhume their preserved remains.
Check it out!
Mutualisms, in which two or more species provide each other with services or resources that they can’t produce on their own, are everywhere you find living things. Mutualists offer protection, help transport pollen, and provide key nutrients.
Even when a mutualist’s services aren’t absolutely vital, they can help make stressful environments tolerable. That’s the insight behind a new study that finds the help from one group of mutualists could allow an unremarkable-looking species of grass to colonize more than 25,000 square kilometers (almost 10,000 square miles) of territory where it otherwise wouldn’t survive.