Charismatic Minifauna

A recent publication (B. Misof, et al. 2014. Phylogenomics resolves the timing and pattern of insect evolution. Science 346 (6210): 763-767.) takes on the herculean task of finding when insects first evolved. This is a particularly vexing question because 1) insects are squishy and don’t fossilize well, and 2) the vast majority of the species on the planet are insects. This is an insect world, we just live in it.

The paper was summarized BRILLIANTLY on WIRED (here). Including my favorite quote:

“Making sense of the diversity of insects in collections has traditionally been a task for a lone expert, usually specializing in just one subset of a group. They become so identified with their study organisms, they may be introduced as “The Ant Man” or “The Wasp Woman.” (No taxonomists I know wear spandex tights and capes to work, for which I am profoundly grateful.)”

Find out about when insects evolved, when they diversified (surprisingly, it started PRIOR to the radiation of angiosperms) and more.

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Tigers and Birds

Many, many world-class ornithologists have called or do call the Louisiana State University Museum of Natural Science home. This year, LSU grad students Mike Harvey (a NiB! contributor!) and Glenn Seeholzer along with LSU alum Dan Lane and Peruvian ornithologist Fernando Angulo are going to Peru this October to find the most bird species they can in a single 24 hour period and they’re hoping to break the world “Big Day” record. (Which currently stands at a whopping 331 species, set in 1982.) A “Big Day” is a mix of fun and work that takes both passion and planning – this one is no exception. Here’s the Peru Big Day Strategy:

Peru is among the top countries in the world for bird diversity, with roughly 1840 species registered. This makes it a great place to attempt to beat the world big day record. The spectacular Andes Mountain range bisects Peru, and it is so tall that it passes through dramatically different climates between its base and its towering peaks. Each climate band produces it’s own habitat, which in turn has it’s own set of bird species. To the east of the Andes, much of Peru falls within the rainforests of the Amazon Basin, which contain the highest single-site bird diversity in the world. The key to a large list during our big day will be to visit as many habitat bands on the slopes of the Andes as possible, but also to spend enough time in the Amazon lowlands to see some of the many species in that area. In order to do this, we will start at midnight high in the Andes at Abra Patricia, work our way down the eastern slopes of the mountains during the morning, and finish in the afternoon in the Mayo Valley, home to many lowland Amazon bird species.

For more information, there’s a video by local TV station WBRZ, there’s a booklet from the American Birding Association or you can go straight to the horse’s mouth bird’s bill and check out http://www.lsubigday.org. Best of luck, you guys – Geaux Tigers!

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(From the LSU Peru Big Day webpage)

 

“One of the great migration stories of the world” – Shrimp in the mighty Mississippi.

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Macrobrachium ohione, by Clinton and Charles Robertson, via Flickr.

The Mississippi River that we know today is a creation of the army corps of engineers. Before they got to levying, dredging and damming it into submission, it was a wild and meandering thing that harbored great concentrations of wildlife. One component of that was a massively abundant shrimp with an amazing life cycle:

It turned out that in pre-colonial times the shrimp traveled all the way north into the upper reaches of the Mississippi’s main eastern tributary, the Ohio River, and back again – a 2,000-mile round trip. It was a journey more amazing than similarly epic migrators like salmon. For whereas adult salmon may have an equally long journey to their upstream spawning sites, it is the quarter-inch juvenile shrimp that swim and crawl 1,000 miles upstream against the strong currents of the Mississippi.

What happened to these shrimp? Go read the story to find out.

Ed Yong on mind-controlling parasites

Here at Nothing in Biology Makes Sense, we’re fascinated by all the weird, baroque ways that living things influence and coevolve with each other—so Ed Yong’s new TED talk about mind-controlling parasites is right up our alley. Just like his writing—currently on display at National Geographic‘s Phenomena, among many other venues—it’s a compendium of nifty natural history punctuated with highly educational gross-outs and the occasional black-belt level pun.

Natural History in the -omics era

This post is a guest contribution by Michael Harvey, graduate student in Robb Brumfield‘s lab at the Museum of Natural Science at Louisiana State University. Mike studies avian evolution, phylogenomics, and Neotropical ornithology. 

Blackwater river…approximate Bayesian computation…dawn song…genomic islands…wing chord…target DNA enrichment…

My life as an evolutionary biologist straddles two worlds. I study the comparative phylogeography of Amazonian birds, and on the one hand my research involves laboratory and computational methods that push the limits of new technologies and analytical techniques, and on the other, expeditions to the tropics that are nearly indistinguishable from the natural history work conducted by Victorian era biologists. I am a PhD student at Louisiana State University, and for most of the year my work is in the lab and at my desk. For several months of the year, however, my work is general ornithological collecting expeditions to the Amazon Basin.

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Friday Coffee Break, St. Patty’s Style

Irish Coffee

Every Friday at Nothing in Biology Makes Sense! our contributors pass around links to new scientific results, or science-y news, or videos of adorable wildlife, that they’re most likely to bring up while waiting in line for a latte.

First of all, my deepest apologies for the lateness of this post.  As you may know I am a 4th year medical student and today was Match Day and I was deep in the throws of celebrating the completion of 4 years of medical education as well as learning where I will be training for the next three years in Family Medicine.   So, without further adieu, your links for this week.

CJ decided to that there were too many good links and had to share several.  First, as a skater herself she found an article relating to transmission of skin flora between close team mates and those competing in roller derby.  Next she decided to share how the sequester is going to affect science jobs and the next few years could be difficult.  But finally, a cool post on five animals that could possibly take over the world, which makes me look at spiders a little closer now.

Next, Jeremy likes the fact that new evidence from the Mars rover is favorable to the possibility of conditions that could have sustained life on the red planet.

From Sarah, some very cool slow mo predator vs. prey footage.  Gotta say this is pretty awesome!  She also found some up close and personal pics of jumping spiders.

From Noah, a video documenting several scientists as they inventory one of the worlds most biodiverse locations, the Yasuni Biosphere Reserve.

Finally, in the spirit of March Madness, from Devin comes a battle of the Mammals. “Mammal March Madness from the Mammal’s Suck blog. Although the tournament is purely fictional, the facts and natural history information given out during the extended live tweet rounds are amazing. The first rounds are already complete, but tune in for the exciting finals. Live action via twitter: @Mammals_Suck and general info via the website:”

A post about lizards on islands. But not the ones you’re probably thinking of.

Yemen Socotra Felletti 48_00

Socotran Adenium obesum

Evolutionary biologists are fascinated by islands. There are a number of reasons for this. Islands systems can act as natural evolutionary experiments. They are small, less biodiverse, and isolated, so their biota can often be treated as simplified models of more complex mainland ecosystems (e.g. Darwin’s finches on the island Daphne Major). Ecologically similar islands can also act as replicates, with related taxa playing out the same evolutionary scenarios over and over again in isolation (e.g. Caribbean Anolis). Or they can act as life preservers, providing isolated strongholds for ancient evolutionary lineages that have long been extinct in the rest of the world (e.g. the Tuatara of New Zealand).

The Socotra archipelago is a particularly interesting, but poorly studied island system. Socotra consists of four islands in the Indian Ocean. It is extremely isolated (150 miles from the horn of Africa, 240 miles from the Arabian Peninsula) yet it has a continental origin. That means it was once part of the supercontinent Gondwana and suggests that some species may have lived there since it first became an island (~17.6 million years ago). Socotra has a very high level of endemism, with 37% of its plant species and 90% of its reptiles occurring nowhere else. As the islands are very remote and in a politically unstable part of the world, most of this unique biodiversity has not been studied using modern techniques. The islands are rugged and mountainous, reaching 1500m elevation, and primarily classified as tropical desert, making for a fairly fantastical landscape. A recent paper by Goméz-Diaz et al. (2012) takes a broad-brush approach to characterizing a chunk of Socotra’s obscure diversity: the Hemidactylus geckos.

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